4. Stakeholder analysis
After identifying your objective, you need to think about your primary audiences that will help influence the change you set to achieve. This section aims at mapping individuals or groups (champions or gatekeepers or catalysts) that you must reach to achieve your policy influence objective. Who are the people interested in knowing what works and what does not? Are they committing time and money to this issue? Do they have an official position on the issue? Do they want something to happen (whether it is for or against)? Are they going to events on the subject?
Your target audiences can be varied including: professional associations, trade unions, CSOs, opposition parties, religious groups, media, as well as official policymakers in the sector. The most obvious audiences might not be the most strategic.
Avoid broad categories such as “general public”, “policymakers” or “Ministry of Health.” It helps to also identify the sceptical and blockers and look at the level of alignment of interest and influence.
Dr Andrew Nyandigisi from the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Kenya talks about the important stakeholders they considered when planning the possible policy impact of their evaluation findings, highlighting why such an analysis is crucial.
The plan provides a very comprehensive stakeholder analysis, which maps the alignment of interest and influence of each stakeholder. It also leverages high level contacts at the national and provincial level Government and with the Stop TB partnership.
The National TB Control Programme: The NTP in Pakistan is the government body that leads Pakistan’s TB programming. IRD and its partner Indus Hospital have significant links to the NTP, including our collaboration in securing USD 147 million for Round 9 of the Global Fund for AIDS, TB, and Malaria for the Government of Pakistan.
The Provincial TB Control Programme, Sindh: The PTP, Sindh is the implementing body of the Government’s TB programme in Sindh. The PTP controls the implementation of the public DOTS clinics in Karachi. While the NTP develops policy, the PTP’s buy-in in essential to ensure its smooth implementation.
Dow University Health Sciences: Dow University Health Sciences is the umbrella organization for the OJHA clinics, which are some of the highest volume TB clinics in Karachi. While they cannot influence policy directly, their buy-in and adoption of the technology will provide support that can, in turn, help change policy.
Electronic Media:The electronic media in Pakistan exercises significant influence over public perceptions and has successfully been able to change policies in Pakistan. Following then-President’s dismissal of the Chief Justice of Pakistan in November 2007, a successful media campaign against this move resulted in Musharraf’s resignation from office and the reinstatement of the CJ under the next government. Similarly, a campaign entitled Zara Sochiye by the popular Urdu-language TV channel Geo, resulted in significant changes to anti-women legislation, after years of unsuccessful advocacy against these laws since their promulgation. At this juncture, the media would be neutral on X out TB but its buy-in and support would be essential in ensuring that the results are well-received.
Pakistan Chest Society and the Anti-TB Association: The Pakistan Chest Society and the Anti-TB Association are national civil society organizations that exercise significant influence on TB policy in Pakistan. It will be important to disseminate the results of the evaluation to this body.
The Green Light Committee: The Green Light Committee (GLC) is a global initiative that facilitates access to high-quality second-line anti-TB medication so that treatment for MDR-TB can be provided in line with WHO standards. IRD’s partner, the Indus Hospital, currently serves on this body and Aamir J. Khan, a PI on the study, is the Primary Member representing Indus Hospital. The GLC exerts significant influence over TB practice globally, as strong DOTS programs are a pre-requisite for national GLC approval for MDR-TB drugs.
Stop TB Partnership: The Stop TB Partnership is body which brings together partners across the globe who are working in the fight against TB. The Partnership includes members, from amongst its coordinating body, of key global bodies that facilitate TB policy. These include representatives of the WHO, the World Bank, GFATM, regional and international organizations, donors, communities affected by TB, and chairpersons of all the TB-related working groups of the WHO. The Partnership includes key policy makers in TB globally and thereby exerts significant influence over global TB policy.
The stakeholder analysis is extremely thorough and identifies key policy influencers with the treasury, the presidency, organized labour and business, regional chambers of commerce and a business journalist from the Financial Mail. The team has already started engaging with them extensively and is building a network of strong relationships.
We have identified six groups to target in order to influence policy:
- National Treasury
- Presidency and the Department of Economic Development and other departments - Labour
- Organised labour
- Organised business
- Small and medium business
- The public through the press
1. National Treasury
This project is a collaboration with the National Treasury. David Faulkner, Director: Growth and Labour, Macroeconomic Policy and Analysis, is the person managing the project from the National Treasury side. He reports to Dr Chris Loewald, Deputy Director-General of Economic Policy (the second most senior civil service post). Andrew Donaldson, Deputy Director-General Public Finance has also been involved with the project. Letsetja Kganyago (Director-General and most senior civil servant within Treasury), and both the former Minister of Finance (and now Minister in the Presidency), Trevor Manual, and the current Minister of Finance, Pravin Gordhan, have all been briefed about this project and are supportive.
The National Treasury is the most important stake-holder since they design economic policy and they will be responsible for allocating the funding once the policy is implemented. The Minister of Finance, in his 2010 Budget Speech, announced the possible implementation of a youth wage subsidy so he has an interest in its implementation.
2. The Presidency, Department of Performance Management, Monitoring and Evaluation, Department of Economic Development and the Department of Labour
The implementation of the policy will require broader consultation across a number of economic departments. The Presidency coordinates and ensures coherence in policy development and implementation. The Presidency is represented on the steering committee by Percy Moleke (Chief Policy Analyst). The National Planning Commission (NPC) within the Presidency, responsible for developing a long term vision and strategic plan for South Africa, is another key role player. The Minister responsible for the NPC, Trevor Manual, is the former Minister of Finance who initially signed off on this project. Kuben Naidoo, Acting Head of the NPC Secretariat, is another contact we have within the Presidency.
The newly created Department of Economic Development is also involved with developing economic policy. There are still a number of vacancies within this department and they are not represented on the steering committee yet. The Department of Labour is represented by Ian Maçun, Executive Manager Collective bargaining.
We have steering committee meetings approximately twice a year and the members of the committee are briefed on progress and findings. Thus, once the results of the implementation will not be sprung on them. We will also discuss with the steering committee members how best to brief their respective departments. It is likely that this will take the form of a presentation and question and answer session before the results are officially released.
3. Organised labour
As discussed above, a sceptical constituency is organised labour. They have already displayed reticence to engage by refusing to participate on the steering committee. The National Labour and Economic Development Institute (NAELDI) is a think tank closely associated with COSATU. This would be a good place to make an initial presentation to the organised labour constituency. We have a relationship with Rudi Dicks, the Executive Director of NALEDI. Patrick Phelane, COSATU’s Labour Policy coordinator, is an ex-student of Economics at the University of the Witwatersrand.
In interacting with organised labour it is vital to address their concerns outlined above. It is also important that this research is presented as being apolitical and done by an independent institution – AMERU. It is also important to consider the timing of the interaction. It may be detrimental to present the results to this constituency before they have been presented widely to policy makers, to avoid lobbying against the policy.
4. Organised business
We have already briefed members of the Management Committee of Business Unity South Africa (BUSA), the largest body representing organised business in South Africa. Included in this briefing was BUSA’s Director of Economic Policy. BUSA also represents organised business at the National Economic Development and Labour Council (NEDLAC) which is the major social dialogue institution in South Africa. It is a powerful business lobby group and is likely to be supportive of the policy should the evaluation indicate that the intervention is successful. Prof Raymond Parsons, the Deputy CEO, is an ex-Visiting Professor at the University of the Witwatersrand, and would be a suitable person to initially brief about the results of the intervention. Again the timing of this communication is crucial. Given the confrontational relationship between organised business and organised labour in South Africa, organised labour will immediately oppose it if the impression is created that this is a policy emanating from organised business.
5. Small and medium business
Small and medium businesses are underrepresented in organisations such as BUSA. Yet this policy may be more beneficial to them since subsidy payments could form a larger part of their wage bill than for large companies. Furthermore, small and medium businesses are often less linked into the policy debate and thus less aware of what is happening because they are not part of organisations such as BUSA. Regional Chambers of Business are the most likely organisations to which these types of businesses belong. Many of these Chambers of Business have weekly or monthly email newsletters which they send to their members. We will provide a short summary of the research (and a link to more detailed research) to be included in these newsletters.
6. The public through the press
The interaction with stake-holders discussed above is focused, in many cases on particular people. However, this type of interaction may miss certain types of people (for example the CEO of a business may not read the email newsletters from the business organisation his firm is part of). It also does not create a broader public debate. To reach these types of people and create this type of debate the results need to be disseminated more broadly. Carol Paton of the Financial Mail has already written a piece on youth unemployment (http://www.financialmail.co.za/Article.aspx?id=104597) for which she interviewed a number of people involved with the project. She is interested in writing about the project once the results come out. In addition to the broader reach of an article such as this, it can also place the results in a broader context and report reactions from other stake-holders. The Financial Mail is the leading weekly business publication in South Africa and has a readership of over 180,000.